Russia ranks 9th in the World by the number of UNESCO World Heritage sites. 17 objects in Russia are included in the list as a Cultural Heritage. Let’s talk about them today.
White stone monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal
These two ancient towns of the Golden Ring occupy an important place in the history of the country's architecture. There is a number of magnificent religious and public buildings of the XII-XIII centuries, among which are the Assumption and Dmitrievsky Cathedrals and the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl.
The historical center of St. Petersburg and related monuments
The “Northern Venice”, with its many canals and more than 400 bridges, is one of the greatest projects of urban design. The city was founded in 1703 by Peter the Great. Its architectural heritage combines such diverse styles as Baroque and Classicism. The main examples are the Admiralty, the Winter Palace, the Marble Palace and the Hermitage.
Moscow Kremlin and Red Square
This place is connected with the most important historical and political events of Russian history. The Moscow Kremlin was created between the 14th and 17th centuries by eminent Russian and foreign architects. Over the years, it had different functions, being the royal residence as well as the religious center. On the Red Square, stretching along the Kremlin walls, stands St. Basil's Cathedral - a true masterpiece of Russian Orthodox architecture.
Ensemble of the Ferapontov Monastery in Vologda region
Ferapontov Monastery is located in the Vologda region, in the north of the European part of Russia. This is an exceptionally well-preserved Orthodox monastic complex of the XV-XVII centuries. Magnificent wall murals were preserved in the interior of the Church of the Nativity of the Virgin. They were created by Dionysius, the greatest Russian artist of the late XV century.
The architectural ensemble is located on the island of Kizhi, Lake Onega, in Karelia. Here you can see two wooden churches of the XVIII century, as well as the octahedral bell tower, built of wood in 1862. These unique structures blend harmoniously with the surrounding natural landscape.
Ensemble of the Novodevichy Convent
The Novodevichy Monastery, located in the south-west of Moscow, was created during the XVI-XVII centuries as a part of the chain of monastic ensembles united into the defense system of the city. The monastery was always a part of the political, cultural and religious life of Russia. Representatives of the royal family, noble boyars and noble families were buried here. The ensemble of the Novodevichy Convent is one of the masterpieces of Russian architecture (Moscow Baroque style). Inside its interiors, valuable collections of paintings and works of decorative arts are stored.
Church of the Ascension in Kolomenskoye
This church was built in 1532 in the royal estate Kolomenskoye near Moscow in commemoration of the birth of the future Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible. The place for the Church was chosen on a steep bank with a stream of water under it, which was considered miraculous.
The Church of the Ascension is one of the earliest examples of tent architecture traditional for wooden churches.
Historical and architectural complex "Kazan Kremlin"
Having emerged on the territory inhabited since very ancient times, the Kazan Kremlin starts its history from the Muslim period of the Golden Horde and the Kazan Khanate. It was conquered in 1552 by Ivan the Terrible and became a stronghold of Orthodoxy in the Volga region. The Kremlin, which largely preserved the layout of the ancient Tatar fortress and became an important center of pilgrimage, includes outstanding historical buildings of the XVI-XIX centuries, built on the ruins of earlier buildings of the X-XVI centuries.
Struve Geodetic Arc
The Struve Arc is a chain of triangulation points stretching for 2,820 km across ten European countries. An astronomer Frederick Georg Wilhelm Struve, who thus produced the first reliable measurement of a large segment of the earth’s meridian arc, laid these reference points of observation in the period 1816-1855. It was a great example of cooperation between scientists from different countries and the ruling monarchs. The World Heritage Site includes 34 such points of the "arc", which are marked in a variety of ways, such as: hollows out in the rocks, iron crosses, cairns or specially installed obelisks.
The architectural ensemble of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra
This is a vivid example of the current Orthodox monastery, which has the features of a fortress, fully corresponding to the time of its formation - the XV-XVIII centuries. The main tomb of Boris Godunov is located in the main church of the monastery, the Assumption Cathedral. Among the treasures of the Lavra is the famous icon "The Trinity" by Andrei Rublev.
The historical center of Yaroslavl
The historic city of Yaroslavl, located approximately 250 km North-East of Moscow, was founded in the XI century and subsequently developed into a large trading center. It is known for its numerous churches of the XVII century. Although the city retained a number of remarkable historical buildings, it was later reconstructed in the style of classicism. It also preserved the XVI century buildings of the Spassky Monastery, one of the oldest in the Upper Volga region.
Assumption Cathedral and the monastery of the island of Sviyazhsk
The Assumption Cathedral is located on the island-city of Sviyazhsk and is part of the monastery of the same name. Founded by Ivan the Terrible in 1551. The location and architecture of the Assumption Monastery proves the existence of a political program to expand the territory of Moscow State. The frescoes of the cathedral are among the rarest examples of Eastern Orthodox wall painting.
Historical monuments of Novgorod and its surroundings
Novgorod, located on the ancient trade route between Central Asia and Northern Europe, was the first capital of Russia (in the IX century), the center of Orthodox spirituality and Russian architecture. Medieval monuments of Novgorod, its churches and monasteries, as well as the frescoes of Theophanes the Greek (Andrei Rublev’s teacher), dating from the 14th century, illustrate an outstanding level of architectural and artistic creativity.
Bulgarian historical and archaeological complex
It is located on the banks of the Volga River on the site of the medieval city of Bulgar, the ancient settlement of the people of the Volga Bulgars. It was the first capital of the Golden Horde. The complex remain a sacred place of pilgrimage for Tatars - Muslims.
The Сitadel, the Old town and fortifications of Derbent
Ancient Derbent is considered the oldest town in Russia. It was located on the Northern frontiers of Sassanid Persia, stretching to the east and west of the Caspian Sea at that time. The ancient fortifications, built of stone, include two walls that run parallel to each other from the seashore to the mountains. The city of Derbent developed between these two walls has retained its medieval character to the present. It had been an important strategic location up to the XIX century.
Cultural and historical ensemble "Solovetsky Islands"
The Solovki archipelago, located in the western part of the White Sea, consists of 6 islands with a total area of more than 300 km². They were settled in the 5th century BC. Since the 15th century, the islands have become the place where the largest monastery in the Russian North is situated. There are also several churches of the XVI-XIX centuries.
The development of this narrow sandy peninsula by man began in prehistoric times. Having a length of 98 km and width of 400 m to 4 km, Spit was exposed to natural forces - wind and sea waves. The preservation of this unique cultural landscape to this day, was possible only thanks to the human struggle with the processes of erosion (consolidation of the dunes, forest plantations).