It is a fortress in the center of Moscow and its oldest part. Kremlin is located on the high left bank of the Moscow River - Borovitsky Hill. In terms of the Kremlin – an area of 27.5 hectares. The Southern wall faces the Moscow River, on the North-West is the Alexander Garden, on the East is the Red Square.
At the end of the 15th century, Tsar Ivan III launched a large-scale construction on Borovitsky Hill. The Italians were considered the best fortifiers of that time, so the Milanese masters were invited to build a fortress. They built not just a powerful fortress, but also a complete architectural ensemble. Every of the 20 towers is unique, the walls are decorated with ‘dovetails’. Only roofs appeared much later.
Behind its red-brick walls are government buildings and a giant museum complex, where hundreds of thousands of historical and cultural artifacts are kept. Archaeological work never stops even for a day, revealing all the new secrets of the most extraordinary place of Russia.
The square was founded by Tsar Ivan III. In 1493, in order to stop the constant fires, he ordered to take down the wooden buildings from the walls of the Kremlin in order to arrange a large market on the east side.
After a century and a half during the reign of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, the largest area of Moscow began to be called "Red" - after all, the way to the Red ("front") porch of the Royal Palace in the Kremlin passed through it. In order to comply with the high status, the square began to fill with important state buildings. In the middle of the XVI century, St. Basil's Cathedral was erected in the southern part of the square.
It is not just a church, but a monument erected in honor of the annexation of the Kazan Khanate to the Russian state. The main battle, in which the Russian troops won. The cathedral consists of individual churches.
Initially, the wooden Trinity Church stood on this place. During the campaigns on Kazan temples were erected around it - they honored the victories of the Russian army. When Kazan finally fell, Metropolitan Makarii proposed to Ivan the Terrible to rebuild the architectural ensemble in stone. He wanted to surround the central temple with seven churches, but the number was increased to eight to be symmetrical.
The ancient building of the Upper Trading Rows, the Main Department Store is located in the very center of the capital, on the Red Square. This is the largest department store in the country and also an architectural monument of federal significance. The length of the building along the Kremlin wall is about 250 meters. Inside there are three three-storey galleries.
Nowadays, most of the shops are boutiques of premium and luxury classes in a department store.
Among the sights of GUM is “Gastronome No.1”, with its old-fashioned decorations and staff clothes, a recreating image of Soviet-era gastronomes. Cafe "Festivalnoye", and "Canteen №57" are also decorated in Soviet style.
One of them is the exposition of casts taken from the originals, made in European workshops specifically for the museum.
The next exhibition is works of art and culture of ancient civilizations. It houses a unique treasure, which was found during excavations in Troy at the end of the 19th century by the German scientist Heinrich Schliemann.
The art gallery presents paintings by masters of the VIII-XX centuries. There is a collection of Byzantine icons and ancient mosaics, works of Botticelli, David, Cranach. Some masterpieces, such as “Madonna and Child with Two Donators” and “Madonna with Child on the Throne” came to the museum from European galleries after World War II.
The last part is the Department of Personal Collections, which include private collections of works of art.
Arbat is not only a historical monument, but also a living, constantly changing space.
The road to Smolensk went along the Arbat, merchants went to Moscow along it, the enemy troops went to Moscow: the Polish, the French approached the Kremlin through the Arbat gates.
In the 18th century the most famous noble families settled on the Arbat. By the end of the 19th century, the intelligentsia changed the aristocrats; shops, hotels, and restaurants appeared on the street.
The old Arbat can be explored endlessly, noticing new details, learning more and more about the history.
Moscow International Business Center "Moscow-City" - one of the most controversial architectural solutions in Moscow. The creation of Moscow-City goes back to 1992, when Moscow Mayor Yuri Luzhkov agreed to build a business center on Krasnopresnenskaya Embankment.
Even at the stage of design, the opinions of Muscovites divided radically. Some people believed that the huge skyscrapers will "kill" the historic view of the capital. Others, on the contrary, believed that the city needed new verticals and modern architectural forms.
This business district has been under construction for almost 20 years, becoming one of the best-known sights of the capital.
The cathedral was built as a gratitude to God for help in the difficult period of the history of Russia - during the Patriotic War of 1812. This is a monument to the Russian people for their courage and heroism.
The construction began near the Kremlin, on the site of the former Alexis Convent, which was demolished. At that time, one of the nuns of the destroyed monastery said that the newly built church would not stand here for more than 50 years. In 1883 the cathedral was finished.
Since 1918, the Temple was completely deprived of assistance from the state, and on December 5, 1931 was destroyed by the order of Joseph Stalin. So the nun's predictions came true - the temple stood for 48 years.
The construction of the Palace of Congresses was planned on this place. Due to the start of World War II, this plan was not implemented. In 1958-1960 a pool was constructed here. In the late 1980s, a social movement started in order to revive the Cathedral of Christ the Savior. In 1992 the Revival Fund was organized.
The construction of the cathedral begins. On the night of January 6-7 2000, the shrine was revived.
The world's largest collection of Russian painting and sculpture grew out of private collections of the brothers Pavel and Sergey Tretyakov. Currently, the gallery features over 180 thousand exhibits.
The first paintings of Russian artists were acquired by Tretyakov at 1856 (this date is considered the year the gallery was founded). Since then, the collection is constantly widens. It was located in a family-owned house in Zamoskvorechye, in Lavrushinsky Lane.
This building is the main building of the museum. It was constantly expanded and rebuilt for the needs of the exposition, and at the beginning of the twentieth century it became familiar to us. Its facade is in the Russian style by the project of the artist Victor Vasnetsov.
One of the largest in Russia and one of the most significant theaters of opera and ballet in the world.
At first, the composition of the troupes varied: from invited foreign stars to serf artists. The maintenance of the theatre was financially unprofitable, and by 1804 it was transferred to the custody of the Board of Trustees.
However, a year later, the first fire destroyed the old theater building. Otherwise, it was impossible to name it as Bolshoi (“big”) theater building erected in the XIX century. The Bolshoi Petrovsky Theater, which was burned down in 1805 and was named after the location on Petrovka Street, was built on January 18, 1825.